This document describes the current stable version of Kombu (4.2). For development docs, go here.

Source code for kombu.entity

"""Exchange and Queue declarations."""
from __future__ import absolute_import, unicode_literals

import numbers

from .abstract import MaybeChannelBound, Object
from .exceptions import ContentDisallowed
from .five import python_2_unicode_compatible, string_t
from .serialization import prepare_accept_content

                  'persistent': PERSISTENT_DELIVERY_MODE}

__all__ = ['Exchange', 'Queue', 'binding', 'maybe_delivery_mode']


def _reprstr(s):
    s = repr(s)
    if isinstance(s, string_t) and s.startswith("u'"):
        return s[2:-1]
    return s[1:-1]

def pretty_bindings(bindings):
    return '[{0}]'.format(', '.join(map(str, bindings)))

def maybe_delivery_mode(
    """Get delivery mode by name (or none if undefined)."""
    if v:
        return v if isinstance(v, numbers.Integral) else modes[v]
    return default

[docs]@python_2_unicode_compatible class Exchange(MaybeChannelBound): """An Exchange declaration. Arguments: name (str): See :attr:`name`. type (str): See :attr:`type`. channel (kombu.Connection, ChannelT): See :attr:`channel`. durable (bool): See :attr:`durable`. auto_delete (bool): See :attr:`auto_delete`. delivery_mode (enum): See :attr:`delivery_mode`. arguments (Dict): See :attr:`arguments`. no_declare (bool): See :attr:`no_declare` Attributes: name (str): Name of the exchange. Default is no name (the default exchange). type (str): *This description of AMQP exchange types was shamelessly stolen from the blog post `AMQP in 10 minutes: Part 4`_ by Rajith Attapattu. Reading this article is recommended if you're new to amqp.* "AMQP defines four default exchange types (routing algorithms) that covers most of the common messaging use cases. An AMQP broker can also define additional exchange types, so see your broker manual for more information about available exchange types. * `direct` (*default*) Direct match between the routing key in the message, and the routing criteria used when a queue is bound to this exchange. * `topic` Wildcard match between the routing key and the routing pattern specified in the exchange/queue binding. The routing key is treated as zero or more words delimited by `"."` and supports special wildcard characters. `"*"` matches a single word and `"#"` matches zero or more words. * `fanout` Queues are bound to this exchange with no arguments. Hence any message sent to this exchange will be forwarded to all queues bound to this exchange. * `headers` Queues are bound to this exchange with a table of arguments containing headers and values (optional). A special argument named "x-match" determines the matching algorithm, where `"all"` implies an `AND` (all pairs must match) and `"any"` implies `OR` (at least one pair must match). :attr:`arguments` is used to specify the arguments. .. _`AMQP in 10 minutes: Part 4`: channel (ChannelT): The channel the exchange is bound to (if bound). durable (bool): Durable exchanges remain active when a server restarts. Non-durable exchanges (transient exchanges) are purged when a server restarts. Default is :const:`True`. auto_delete (bool): If set, the exchange is deleted when all queues have finished using it. Default is :const:`False`. delivery_mode (enum): The default delivery mode used for messages. The value is an integer, or alias string. * 1 or `"transient"` The message is transient. Which means it is stored in memory only, and is lost if the server dies or restarts. * 2 or "persistent" (*default*) The message is persistent. Which means the message is stored both in-memory, and on disk, and therefore preserved if the server dies or restarts. The default value is 2 (persistent). arguments (Dict): Additional arguments to specify when the exchange is declared. no_declare (bool): Never declare this exchange (:meth:`declare` does nothing). """ TRANSIENT_DELIVERY_MODE = TRANSIENT_DELIVERY_MODE PERSISTENT_DELIVERY_MODE = PERSISTENT_DELIVERY_MODE name = '' type = 'direct' durable = True auto_delete = False passive = False delivery_mode = None no_declare = False attrs = ( ('name', None), ('type', None), ('arguments', None), ('durable', bool), ('passive', bool), ('auto_delete', bool), ('delivery_mode', lambda m: DELIVERY_MODES.get(m) or m), ('no_declare', bool), ) def __init__(self, name='', type='', channel=None, **kwargs): super(Exchange, self).__init__(**kwargs) = name or self.type = type or self.type self.maybe_bind(channel) def __hash__(self): return hash('E|%s' % (,)) def _can_declare(self): return not self.no_declare and ( and not INTERNAL_EXCHANGE_PREFIX))
[docs] def declare(self, nowait=False, passive=None, channel=None): """Declare the exchange. Creates the exchange on the broker, unless passive is set in which case it will only assert that the exchange exists. Argument: nowait (bool): If set the server will not respond, and a response will not be waited for. Default is :const:`False`. """ if self._can_declare(): passive = self.passive if passive is None else passive return (channel or, type=self.type, durable=self.durable, auto_delete=self.auto_delete, arguments=self.arguments, nowait=nowait, passive=passive, )
[docs] def bind_to(self, exchange='', routing_key='', arguments=None, nowait=False, channel=None, **kwargs): """Bind the exchange to another exchange. Arguments: nowait (bool): If set the server will not respond, and the call will not block waiting for a response. Default is :const:`False`. """ if isinstance(exchange, Exchange): exchange = return (channel or, source=exchange, routing_key=routing_key, nowait=nowait, arguments=arguments, )
[docs] def unbind_from(self, source='', routing_key='', nowait=False, arguments=None, channel=None): """Delete previously created exchange binding from the server.""" if isinstance(source, Exchange): source = return (channel or, source=source, routing_key=routing_key, nowait=nowait, arguments=arguments, )
[docs] def Message(self, body, delivery_mode=None, properties=None, **kwargs): """Create message instance to be sent with :meth:`publish`. Arguments: body (Any): Message body. delivery_mode (bool): Set custom delivery mode. Defaults to :attr:`delivery_mode`. priority (int): Message priority, 0 to broker configured max priority, where higher is better. content_type (str): The messages content_type. If content_type is set, no serialization occurs as it is assumed this is either a binary object, or you've done your own serialization. Leave blank if using built-in serialization as our library properly sets content_type. content_encoding (str): The character set in which this object is encoded. Use "binary" if sending in raw binary objects. Leave blank if using built-in serialization as our library properly sets content_encoding. properties (Dict): Message properties. headers (Dict): Message headers. """ # XXX This method is unused by kombu itself AFAICT [ask]. properties = {} if properties is None else properties properties['delivery_mode'] = maybe_delivery_mode(self.delivery_mode) return body, properties=properties, **kwargs)
[docs] def publish(self, message, routing_key=None, mandatory=False, immediate=False, exchange=None): """Publish message. Arguments: message (Union[kombu.Message, str, bytes]): Message to publish. routing_key (str): Message routing key. mandatory (bool): Currently not supported. immediate (bool): Currently not supported. """ if isinstance(message, string_t): message = self.Message(message) exchange = exchange or return message, exchange=exchange, routing_key=routing_key, mandatory=mandatory, immediate=immediate, )
[docs] def delete(self, if_unused=False, nowait=False): """Delete the exchange declaration on server. Arguments: if_unused (bool): Delete only if the exchange has no bindings. Default is :const:`False`. nowait (bool): If set the server will not respond, and a response will not be waited for. Default is :const:`False`. """ return, if_unused=if_unused, nowait=nowait)
[docs] def binding(self, routing_key='', arguments=None, unbind_arguments=None): return binding(self, routing_key, arguments, unbind_arguments)
def __eq__(self, other): if isinstance(other, Exchange): return ( == and self.type == other.type and self.arguments == other.arguments and self.durable == other.durable and self.auto_delete == other.auto_delete and self.delivery_mode == other.delivery_mode) return NotImplemented def __ne__(self, other): return not self.__eq__(other) def __repr__(self): return self._repr_entity(self) def __str__(self): return 'Exchange {0}({1})'.format( _reprstr( or repr(''), self.type, ) @property def can_cache_declaration(self): return not self.auto_delete
@python_2_unicode_compatible class binding(Object): """Represents a queue or exchange binding. Arguments: exchange (Exchange): Exchange to bind to. routing_key (str): Routing key used as binding key. arguments (Dict): Arguments for bind operation. unbind_arguments (Dict): Arguments for unbind operation. """ attrs = ( ('exchange', None), ('routing_key', None), ('arguments', None), ('unbind_arguments', None) ) def __init__(self, exchange=None, routing_key='', arguments=None, unbind_arguments=None): = exchange self.routing_key = routing_key self.arguments = arguments self.unbind_arguments = unbind_arguments def declare(self, channel, nowait=False): """Declare destination exchange.""" if and, nowait=nowait) def bind(self, entity, nowait=False, channel=None): """Bind entity to this binding.""" entity.bind_to(, routing_key=self.routing_key, arguments=self.arguments, nowait=nowait, channel=channel) def unbind(self, entity, nowait=False, channel=None): """Unbind entity from this binding.""" entity.unbind_from(, routing_key=self.routing_key, arguments=self.unbind_arguments, nowait=nowait, channel=channel) def __repr__(self): return '<binding: {0}>'.format(self) def __str__(self): return '{0}->{1}'.format( _reprstr(, _reprstr(self.routing_key), )
[docs]@python_2_unicode_compatible class Queue(MaybeChannelBound): """A Queue declaration. Arguments: name (str): See :attr:`name`. exchange (Exchange, str): See :attr:`exchange`. routing_key (str): See :attr:`routing_key`. channel (kombu.Connection, ChannelT): See :attr:`channel`. durable (bool): See :attr:`durable`. exclusive (bool): See :attr:`exclusive`. auto_delete (bool): See :attr:`auto_delete`. queue_arguments (Dict): See :attr:`queue_arguments`. binding_arguments (Dict): See :attr:`binding_arguments`. consumer_arguments (Dict): See :attr:`consumer_arguments`. no_declare (bool): See :attr:`no_declare`. on_declared (Callable): See :attr:`on_declared`. expires (float): See :attr:`expires`. message_ttl (float): See :attr:`message_ttl`. max_length (int): See :attr:`max_length`. max_length_bytes (int): See :attr:`max_length_bytes`. max_priority (int): See :attr:`max_priority`. Attributes: name (str): Name of the queue. Default is no name (default queue destination). exchange (Exchange): The :class:`Exchange` the queue binds to. routing_key (str): The routing key (if any), also called *binding key*. The interpretation of the routing key depends on the :attr:`Exchange.type`. * direct exchange Matches if the routing key property of the message and the :attr:`routing_key` attribute are identical. * fanout exchange Always matches, even if the binding does not have a key. * topic exchange Matches the routing key property of the message by a primitive pattern matching scheme. The message routing key then consists of words separated by dots (`"."`, like domain names), and two special characters are available; star (`"*"`) and hash (`"#"`). The star matches any word, and the hash matches zero or more words. For example `"*.stock.#"` matches the routing keys `"usd.stock"` and `"eur.stock.db"` but not `"stock.nasdaq"`. channel (ChannelT): The channel the Queue is bound to (if bound). durable (bool): Durable queues remain active when a server restarts. Non-durable queues (transient queues) are purged if/when a server restarts. Note that durable queues do not necessarily hold persistent messages, although it does not make sense to send persistent messages to a transient queue. Default is :const:`True`. exclusive (bool): Exclusive queues may only be consumed from by the current connection. Setting the 'exclusive' flag always implies 'auto-delete'. Default is :const:`False`. auto_delete (bool): If set, the queue is deleted when all consumers have finished using it. Last consumer can be canceled either explicitly or because its channel is closed. If there was no consumer ever on the queue, it won't be deleted. expires (float): Set the expiry time (in seconds) for when this queue should expire. The expiry time decides how long the queue can stay unused before it's automatically deleted. *Unused* means the queue has no consumers, the queue has not been redeclared, and ``Queue.get`` has not been invoked for a duration of at least the expiration period. See **RabbitMQ extension**: Only available when using RabbitMQ. message_ttl (float): Message time to live in seconds. This setting controls how long messages can stay in the queue unconsumed. If the expiry time passes before a message consumer has received the message, the message is deleted and no consumer will see the message. See **RabbitMQ extension**: Only available when using RabbitMQ. max_length (int): Set the maximum number of messages that the queue can hold. If the number of messages in the queue size exceeds this limit, new messages will be dropped (or dead-lettered if a dead letter exchange is active). See **RabbitMQ extension**: Only available when using RabbitMQ. max_length_bytes (int): Set the max size (in bytes) for the total of messages in the queue. If the total size of all the messages in the queue exceeds this limit, new messages will be dropped (or dead-lettered if a dead letter exchange is active). **RabbitMQ extension**: Only available when using RabbitMQ. max_priority (int): Set the highest priority number for this queue. For example if the value is 10, then messages can delivered to this queue can have a ``priority`` value between 0 and 10, where 10 is the highest priority. RabbitMQ queues without a max priority set will ignore the priority field in the message, so if you want priorities you need to set the max priority field to declare the queue as a priority queue. **RabbitMQ extension**: Only available when using RabbitMQ. queue_arguments (Dict): Additional arguments used when declaring the queue. Can be used to to set the arguments value for RabbitMQ/AMQP's ``queue.declare``. binding_arguments (Dict): Additional arguments used when binding the queue. Can be used to to set the arguments value for RabbitMQ/AMQP's ``queue.declare``. consumer_arguments (Dict): Additional arguments used when consuming from this queue. Can be used to to set the arguments value for RabbitMQ/AMQP's ``basic.consume``. alias (str): Unused in Kombu, but applications can take advantage of this, for example to give alternate names to queues with utomatically generated queue names. on_declared (Callable): Optional callback to be applied when the queue has been declared (the ``queue_declare`` operation is complete). This must be a function with a signature that accepts at least 3 positional arguments: ``(name, messages, consumers)``. no_declare (bool): Never declare this queue, nor related entities (:meth:`declare` does nothing). """ ContentDisallowed = ContentDisallowed name = '' exchange = Exchange('') routing_key = '' durable = True exclusive = False auto_delete = False no_ack = False attrs = ( ('name', None), ('exchange', None), ('routing_key', None), ('queue_arguments', None), ('binding_arguments', None), ('consumer_arguments', None), ('durable', bool), ('exclusive', bool), ('auto_delete', bool), ('no_ack', None), ('alias', None), ('bindings', list), ('no_declare', bool), ('expires', float), ('message_ttl', float), ('max_length', int), ('max_length_bytes', int), ('max_priority', int) ) def __init__(self, name='', exchange=None, routing_key='', channel=None, bindings=None, on_declared=None, **kwargs): super(Queue, self).__init__(**kwargs) = name or = exchange or self.routing_key = routing_key or self.routing_key self.bindings = set(bindings or []) self.on_declared = on_declared # allows Queue('name', [binding(...), binding(...), ...]) if isinstance(exchange, (list, tuple, set)): self.bindings |= set(exchange) if self.bindings: = None # exclusive implies auto-delete. if self.exclusive: self.auto_delete = True self.maybe_bind(channel)
[docs] def bind(self, channel): on_declared = self.on_declared bound = super(Queue, self).bind(channel) bound.on_declared = on_declared return bound
def __hash__(self): return hash('Q|%s' % (,))
[docs] def when_bound(self): if =
[docs] def declare(self, nowait=False, channel=None): """Declare queue and exchange then binds queue to exchange.""" if not self.no_declare: # - declare main binding. self._create_exchange(nowait=nowait, channel=channel) self._create_queue(nowait=nowait, channel=channel) self._create_bindings(nowait=nowait, channel=channel) return
def _create_exchange(self, nowait=False, channel=None): if, channel=channel) def _create_queue(self, nowait=False, channel=None): self.queue_declare(nowait=nowait, passive=False, channel=channel) if and self.queue_bind(nowait=nowait, channel=channel) def _create_bindings(self, nowait=False, channel=None): for B in self.bindings: channel = channel or B.declare(channel) B.bind(self, nowait=nowait, channel=channel)
[docs] def queue_declare(self, nowait=False, passive=False, channel=None): """Declare queue on the server. Arguments: nowait (bool): Do not wait for a reply. passive (bool): If set, the server will not create the queue. The client can use this to check whether a queue exists without modifying the server state. """ channel = channel or queue_arguments = channel.prepare_queue_arguments( self.queue_arguments or {}, expires=self.expires, message_ttl=self.message_ttl, max_length=self.max_length, max_length_bytes=self.max_length_bytes, max_priority=self.max_priority, ) ret = channel.queue_declare(, passive=passive, durable=self.durable, exclusive=self.exclusive, auto_delete=self.auto_delete, arguments=queue_arguments, nowait=nowait, ) if not = ret[0] if self.on_declared: self.on_declared(*ret) return ret
[docs] def queue_bind(self, nowait=False, channel=None): """Create the queue binding on the server.""" return self.bind_to(, self.routing_key, self.binding_arguments, channel=channel, nowait=nowait)
[docs] def bind_to(self, exchange='', routing_key='', arguments=None, nowait=False, channel=None): if isinstance(exchange, Exchange): exchange = return (channel or, exchange=exchange, routing_key=routing_key, arguments=arguments, nowait=nowait, )
[docs] def get(self, no_ack=None, accept=None): """Poll the server for a new message. This method provides direct access to the messages in a queue using a synchronous dialogue, designed for specific types of applications where synchronous functionality is more important than performance. Returns: ~kombu.Message: if a message was available, or :const:`None` otherwise. Arguments: no_ack (bool): If enabled the broker will automatically ack messages. accept (Set[str]): Custom list of accepted content types. """ no_ack = self.no_ack if no_ack is None else no_ack message =, no_ack=no_ack) if message is not None: m2p = getattr(, 'message_to_python', None) if m2p: message = m2p(message) if message.errors: message._reraise_error() message.accept = prepare_accept_content(accept) return message
[docs] def purge(self, nowait=False): """Remove all ready messages from the queue.""" return, nowait=nowait) or 0
[docs] def consume(self, consumer_tag='', callback=None, no_ack=None, nowait=False): """Start a queue consumer. Consumers last as long as the channel they were created on, or until the client cancels them. Arguments: consumer_tag (str): Unique identifier for the consumer. The consumer tag is local to a connection, so two clients can use the same consumer tags. If this field is empty the server will generate a unique tag. no_ack (bool): If enabled the broker will automatically ack messages. nowait (bool): Do not wait for a reply. callback (Callable): callback called for each delivered message. """ if no_ack is None: no_ack = self.no_ack return, no_ack=no_ack, consumer_tag=consumer_tag or '', callback=callback, nowait=nowait, arguments=self.consumer_arguments)
[docs] def cancel(self, consumer_tag): """Cancel a consumer by consumer tag.""" return
[docs] def delete(self, if_unused=False, if_empty=False, nowait=False): """Delete the queue. Arguments: if_unused (bool): If set, the server will only delete the queue if it has no consumers. A channel error will be raised if the queue has consumers. if_empty (bool): If set, the server will only delete the queue if it is empty. If it is not empty a channel error will be raised. nowait (bool): Do not wait for a reply. """ return, if_unused=if_unused, if_empty=if_empty, nowait=nowait)
[docs] def queue_unbind(self, arguments=None, nowait=False, channel=None): return self.unbind_from(, self.routing_key, arguments, nowait, channel)
[docs] def unbind_from(self, exchange='', routing_key='', arguments=None, nowait=False, channel=None): """Unbind queue by deleting the binding from the server.""" return (channel or,, routing_key=routing_key, arguments=arguments, nowait=nowait, )
def __eq__(self, other): if isinstance(other, Queue): return ( == and == and self.routing_key == other.routing_key and self.queue_arguments == other.queue_arguments and self.binding_arguments == other.binding_arguments and self.consumer_arguments == other.consumer_arguments and self.durable == other.durable and self.exclusive == other.exclusive and self.auto_delete == other.auto_delete) return NotImplemented def __ne__(self, other): return not self.__eq__(other) def __repr__(self): if self.bindings: return self._repr_entity('Queue {name} -> {bindings}'.format( name=_reprstr(, bindings=pretty_bindings(self.bindings), )) return self._repr_entity( 'Queue {name} -> {!r} -> {routing_key}'.format( self, name=_reprstr(, routing_key=_reprstr(self.routing_key), ), ) @property def can_cache_declaration(self): return not self.auto_delete
[docs] @classmethod def from_dict(cls, queue, **options): binding_key = options.get('binding_key') or options.get('routing_key') e_durable = options.get('exchange_durable') if e_durable is None: e_durable = options.get('durable') e_auto_delete = options.get('exchange_auto_delete') if e_auto_delete is None: e_auto_delete = options.get('auto_delete') q_durable = options.get('queue_durable') if q_durable is None: q_durable = options.get('durable') q_auto_delete = options.get('queue_auto_delete') if q_auto_delete is None: q_auto_delete = options.get('auto_delete') e_arguments = options.get('exchange_arguments') q_arguments = options.get('queue_arguments') b_arguments = options.get('binding_arguments') c_arguments = options.get('consumer_arguments') bindings = options.get('bindings') exchange = Exchange(options.get('exchange'), type=options.get('exchange_type'), delivery_mode=options.get('delivery_mode'), routing_key=options.get('routing_key'), durable=e_durable, auto_delete=e_auto_delete, arguments=e_arguments) return Queue(queue, exchange=exchange, routing_key=binding_key, durable=q_durable, exclusive=options.get('exclusive'), auto_delete=q_auto_delete, no_ack=options.get('no_ack'), queue_arguments=q_arguments, binding_arguments=b_arguments, consumer_arguments=c_arguments, bindings=bindings)
[docs] def as_dict(self, recurse=False): res = super(Queue, self).as_dict(recurse) if not recurse: return res bindings = res.get('bindings') if bindings: res['bindings'] = [b.as_dict(recurse=True) for b in bindings] return res